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**P/N Junctions and Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) Quiz Answers**

**Question 1)**

**Using Shockley’s lucky electron thoery, consider a conventional APD made of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The device was illuminated on the p-side with an incident light whose energy was 1.42 eV and power was 1.0 μW. Assume the quantum efficiency η=0.8 and note the charge on the electron, q=1.6×10^{−19} C, and ℎ ,Planck’s constant, is 6.63 × 1 0^{− 34} m^{ 2} kg/s.**

**If the output current was 10 μA, what is the gain? Your answer should be unitless.**

Answer: 16

**Question 5)**

**Consider a conventional APD made of a GaAs p-i-n junction. The device was illuminated on the p-side with an incident light whose energy was 1.42 eV and power was 1.0 μW. Assume the quantum efficiency η=0.8 and note the charge on the electron, q=1.6×10 ^{−19 }C, and ℎ, Planck’s constant, is 6.63×10^{−34 }m^{2}kg/s.**

**The reverse bias voltage is 5 V. For simplicity, assume that the electric field is zero in p- and n-type regions and that the applied voltage and the built-in potential produce a constant electric field throughout the intrinsic layer whose thickness was 1.0μm.**

- Useful parameters: threshold energy for impact ionization
*Eth = 3.0eV* - electron effective mass m
_{e}=0.067mo, electron rest mass mo=9.11×10^{−31}kg - Inverse of phonon scattering rate (relaxation time) τ=1.0×10
^{−13 }s - Built-in potential V
_{bi} =1V. If this is less than the breakdown voltage value, enter 1. Otherwise, enter 0.

Answer: 1

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